Anzu Immunity Profile FAQs & Research

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Nature Medicine volume 27, pages 1205–1211 (May 17, 2021)

"Modeling of the decay of the neutralization titer over the first 250 d after immunization predicts that a significant loss in protection from SARS-CoV-2 infection will occur, although protection from severe disease should be largely retained. Neutralization titers against some SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern are reduced compared with the vaccine strain, and our model predicts the relationship between neutralization and efficacy against viral variants. Here, we show that neutralization level is highly predictive of immune protection, and provide an evidence-based model of SARS-CoV-2immune protection that will assist in developing vaccine strategies to control the future trajectory of the pandemic."

JAMA. 2021;325(18):1896-1898. doi:10.1001/jama.2021.4388 (March 19, 2021)

"This study found neutralizing activity of infection- and vaccine-elicited antibodies against 4 SARS-CoV-2 variants, including B.1, B.1.1.7, and N501Y. Because neutralization studies measure the ability of antibodies to block virus infection, these results suggest that infection- and vaccine-induced immunity may be retained against the B.1.1.7 variant. As additional variants emerge, neutralizing-antibody responses after infection and vaccination should be monitored."

THE LANCET Microbe. (March 23, 2021)

"Persistence of neutralising antibodies was associated with disease severity and sustained level of proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors. By contrast, T-cell responses were similar among the different neutralising antibody dynamics groups. On the basis of the different decay dynamics, we established a prediction algorithm that revealed a wide range of neutralising antibody longevity, varying from around 40 days to many decades.

Nature Biotechnology volume 38, pages1073–1078 (2020) Cite this article

"One of the important elements of regulatory evaluation is the measurement of the vaccine-induced immune response, for which guidance is available in the WHO guidelines on the clinical evaluation of vaccines. Evaluation of the immunogenicity of a vaccine aims to identify a possible correlate of protection. Although it is still unclear what such a correlate could be for SARS-CoV-2, neutralising or binding antibodies are good candidates. However, identification of a correlate of protection requires the comparison of immunological data from different clinical trials, but is often confounded by the differences in assays, target antigens, numerical readouts, and endpoints."

THE LANCET Microbe. (October 26, 2021)

"A robust serological test to detect neutralizing antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 is urgently needed to determine not only the infection rate, herd immunity and predicted humoral protection, but also vaccine efficacy during clinical trials and after large-scale vaccination.The current gold standard is the conventional virus neutralization test requiring live pathogen and a biosafety level 3 laboratory. Here, we report a SARS-CoV-2 surrogate virus neutralization test that detects total immunodominant neutralizing antibodies targeting the viral spike (S) protein receptor-binding domain in an isotype- and species-independent manner. Our simple and rapid test is based on antibody-mediated blockage of the interaction between the angiotensin-converting enzyme2 (ACE2) receptor protein and the receptor-binding domain. The test, which has been validated with two cohorts of patients with COVID-19 in two different countries, achieves 99.93% specificity and 95–100% sensitivity, and differentiates antibody responses to several human coronaviruses. The surrogate virus neutralization test does not require biosafety level 3 containment, making it broadly accessible to the wider community for both research and clinical applications."

GenScript. (October 2020)

"Plaque Reduction Neutralization Tests (PRNT) or Virus Neutralization Tests (VNT), are considered the gold standards to test neutralizing antibody titers. However, these assays require live viruses and cells, biosafety containment facilities, highly skilled operators, they are less sensitive, and take 2-3 days to obtain results. They are thus hard to scale up via automation and distribute widely.To solve these problems, GenScript has developed SARS-CoV-2 Surrogate Virus Neutralization Test that is based on blocking ELISA methodology and detects the presence of neutralizing/blocking antibodies in a serum or plasma sample."


"Among fully vaccinated health care workers, the occurrence of breakthrough infections with SARS-CoV-2 was correlated with neutralizing antibody titers during the peri-infection period. Most breakthrough infections were mild or asymptomatic, although persistent symptoms did occur."

Military Medical Research volume 8, Article number: 47 (AUGUST 31, 2021)

"We summarise the onset and persistence of IgA, IgM and IgG antibodies, and we explore their roles in neutralising SARS-CoV-2, their persistence in convalescent individuals, and in reinfection. Furthermore, we also review the applications of neutralising antibodies in the clinical setting—from predictors of disease severity to serological testing to vaccinations, and finally in therapeutics such as convalescent plasma infusion."

Stem Cell Research; 50: 102125. (JANUARY 2021)

"Recombinant neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are (i) suitable for all the people in need, regardless of the immunological response rate induced by vaccines; (ii) The efficacy of neutralizing antibodies have been validated before administrating and there is no extra antibodies that binds to NP protein or non- neutralizing antibodies; (iii) High binding affinity and potency decrease the concerns about ADE effect due to low affinity. In conclusion, therapeutic antibodies which can neutralize the SARS-CoV-2 is an unreplaceable approach for curbing and vanishing the SARS-CoV-2 spread."

ASM Journals Journal of Clinical Microbiology Vol. 58, No. 11  (OCTOBER 21, 2020)

"None of the crew members with neutralizing antibody titers showed evidence of bona fide viral infection or experienced any symptoms during the viral outbreak. Therefore, the presence of neutralizing antibodies from prior infection was significantly associated with protection against reinfection (Fisher’s exact test, P = 0.002).... Nonetheless, with an overall attack rate of >85%, the lack of infection in the three individuals with neutralizing antibodies was statistically significant in comparison to the rest of the boat’s crew. Overall, our results provide the first direct evidence that anti-SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies are protective against SARS-CoV-2 infection in humans."

medRxiv Preprint (DECEMBER 5, 2020)

"Protection from reinfection decreases with time since previous infection, but is, nevertheless, higher than that conferred by vaccination with two doses at a similar time since the last immunity-conferring event. A single vaccine dose after infection helps to restore protection."

medRxiv Preprint (DECEMBER 23, 2021)

"The recently emerged SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant encodes 37 amino acid substitutions in the spike (S) protein, 15 of which are in the receptor-binding domain (RBD), thereby raising concerns about the effectiveness of available vaccines and antibody therapeutics.... The magnitude of Omicron-mediated immune evasion marks a major SARS-CoV-2 antigenic shift. Broadly neutralizing mAbs recognizing RBD epitopes conserved among SARS-CoV-2 variants and other sarbecoviruses may prove key to controlling the ongoing pandemic and future zoonotic spillovers."

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